The CI/CD and DevOps Blog

Learn about various tried-and-tested strategies that will help you ship code faster

Avi Cavale

Avi Cavale
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Recent Posts

Java CI: Build and Push a WAR Application to Nexus

This tutorial explains how to build and push a Java-based web application to a Nexus Repository using Maven. We are using a Java demo application that has basic CI tests.

These are the following concepts you need to be familiar with to proceed further:

Why we Moved From NoSQL MongoDB to PostgreSQL

Shippable was founded almost 5 years ago. What started as simple CI for Docker has evolved into a full-blown DevOps automation platform that supports a plethora of tools and languages, popular third party tools, and very soon, multiple Operating systems. Today we deploy 50+ micro services, along with the core API and UI. We have also grown considerably in terms of employees and we have a mix of folks who have built massive web scale apps and also who are relative new to enterprise grade applications.
A couple of years ago, we moved our code base to a monorepo, which helped us scale tremendously in terms of code reuse and overall speed of development. We are extremely proud of our ability to run a resilient service that has 99.99% availability with zero downtime upgrades.
From the beginning of this journey, I made a decision to go all in on Javascript as our  default coding language.The most important reason for this was that I wanted to hire full stack developers who could work on every aspect of the product, so we chose  Angular.js for UI, Node.js for API and schema-less JSON database aka NOSQL MongoDB.  We made all technology decisions based on this one philosophy (another blog coming about what i learned and why i am no longer a fan of full stack developers) and it worked beautifully...for a while.

Moving Up The DevOps Maturity Curve

“I don't get no respect”
       - Rodney Dangerfield.
Most DevOps automation engineers probably feel the same way Rodney Dangerfield did. While they work hard to make CI/CD frictionless and ship applications faster than ever before, other principles of DevOps like culture and collaboration get much more attention than automation. Organizations expect DevOps to help accelerate software releases and ship better quality products, but they often underestimate the time and investment that is needed to implement the automation that will get them close to the nirvana of Continuous Delivery.
There is a reason, however, why automation has failed to capture the attention of the DevOps community: relative to the other aspects like culture and collaboration, automation tooling is a laggard and hasn't matured to a point where it can help accelerate the evolution of the process of shipping software from craft to industry. Simply put, automation tools available today are too primitive and are on the lower end of the maturity curve. 

ReST API Best Practice: OAuth for Token Authentication and Authorization

 A big challenge with API based microservices architecture is handling authentication (authN) and authorization (authZ) . If you are like most companies today, you are probably using some sort of OAuth identity provider like OpenID, Google, GitHub, etc. This takes care of both identity and authentication, but authorization (AuthZ) is not addressed by this.

In our previous blog posts, we discussed two REST API best practices for making one Database call per API route and assembling complex objects that need to be displayed in the UI.  In response, one of our readers asked a great question: If the design pattern is to always make one DB call per API route and then handle joins in the UI to create complex objects, how do we manage authorization/permissions? With a finished API, you can abstract it across the lower level APIs.

This blog describes pros and cons of two options we considered for handling authZ and why we chose the approach we did. Our two possible approaches were:

- Create a user on the DB for every single user who interacted with our service and manage all permissions at the DB level

- Create a superuser DB account that has “data modification access” and no “data definition access,” and use that account to access data

We were initially hesitant to go with option 2 since it meant accessing all data with superuser credentials, which felt like we weren't enforcing permissions at the lowest level we could. 

Let's look at both options in greater detail.

REST API Best Practice: Assemble complex objects in the UI layer

I spent the first decade of my career at Microsoft. As a result, the only stack I was familiar with was Microsoft SQL Server at the backend, an API layer using SOAP + XML in the middle, topped with a web layer built on .Net. 

I was drunk on the SOAP kool-aid and completely ignored the inefficiencies created by SOAP + .NET. For example, the view state transferred for every interaction between the API and Web layer was very heavy and led to the following:

Complicated stored procedures: We tried to minimize calls between Web and API layers, which meant that any call that retrieved complex information from multiple tables needed a SQL Server stored procedure. 

Multiple APIs to manage CRUD: API contracts did not represent the DB schema and multiple CRUD APIs interacted with the same database object. This led to confusion among developers and frequent regression issues since it was difficult to find all code locations where an object was being created or updated.

Fragile database: The above issues made us reluctant to change anything in the database since it caused bugs and regressions. This meant our database was virtually frozen.

Having experienced this as a developer, manager, and eventually a Product Unit Manager, the first thing I did at Shippable was to pledge total allegiance to REST. One of the most important principles of REST is that every object should have an http routable method. Now this led us to a very interesting conundrum: where should we compose the objects that need to be displayed in the UI? Should we build a layer of finished APIs that return a ready-to-display object or should we compose the object in the UI layer by making multiple calls to the basic CRUD APIs?